Title: Cooperation in Space between India and the Gulf: A Geopolitical Perspective

The relationship between India and the Gulf countries has traditionally been centered around trade, especially in oil and gas. However, in recent years, a new dimension has been added to this relationship – space cooperation. This is driven by several factors, including India’s impressive strides in space technology and the Gulf countries’ desire to diversify their economies and reduce dependence on oil.

India has established a strong reputation in space technology, with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) launching numerous satellites for various purposes, including communication, earth observation, and scientific research. These achievements have made India an attractive partner for countries looking to develop their own space capabilities.

On the other hand, Gulf countries, particularly the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Saudi Arabia, are seeking to diversify their economies under their respective national vision plans. Part of these plans involve developing capabilities in high-tech sectors, including space technology. Both the UAE and Saudi Arabia have established space agencies and have plans to launch satellites and even send astronauts to space.

In this context, space cooperation between India and the Gulf countries has been growing. Several Memorandum of Understandings (MoUs) have been signed between ISRO and its counterparts in the UAE and Saudi Arabia. These MoUs cover a range of areas, including satellite technology, ground station operations, and space exploration.

The cooperation is mutually beneficial. For India, it provides an opportunity to showcase its technological prowess and secure lucrative contracts for launching satellites. It also helps India to strengthen its geopolitical influence in the Gulf region. For the Gulf countries, cooperation with India can help accelerate the development of their space capabilities and promote their economic diversification efforts.

However, there are also challenges to this cooperation. One key challenge is the issue of technology transfer. While Gulf countries would like to acquire advanced technology from India, there may be restrictions due to security concerns. Another challenge is the competition from other space-faring nations, such as the US, China, and Russia, who are also keen to cooperate with the Gulf countries in space technology.

Despite these challenges, the prospects for India-Gulf space cooperation are promising. It can contribute to the strengthening of overall bilateral relations, the promotion of science and technology cooperation, and the fostering of goodwill and mutual understanding. At the same time, it can also contribute to the global efforts for peaceful exploration and use of outer space.

In conclusion, space cooperation is a new and exciting dimension of the India-Gulf relationship. It is driven by both countries’ strategic interests and has the potential to yield significant benefits. However, to fully realize these benefits, both sides need to address the challenges and work together to create a conducive environment for cooperation.


India has developed a strong space programme since the establishment of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in 1969. It has achieved numerous remarkable feats, including the launch of 104 satellites in a single mission in 2017, and the successful Mars Mission. These notable achievements have attracted interest from other countries around the world, particularly in the Gulf region. Several Gulf states, such as the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Bahrain, are keen to develop their own space programmes and are looking to India for collaboration and expertise.

The UAE has been particularly active in helming space cooperation in the region, with various ambitious projects such as the Mars 2117 mission to build a human colony on Mars, and the launch of the country’s first home-grown advanced remote sensing observation satellite, KhalifaSat. In 2015, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between ISRO and the UAE Space Agency (UAESA) to establish a Joint Working Group, coordinating peaceful space exploration and the study of Mars.

Saudi Arabia has also been investing heavily in its space sector. It has launched its first domestic communication satellite, SGS-1, and is planning to invest around $2.1 billion into its space programme as part of its Vision 2030 reform agenda. India and Saudi Arabia signed an MoU in 2010 for cooperation in various fields including remote sensing, space meteorology, and disaster management.

Oman, an old strategic and trade partner of India, has also shown interest in building its space programme. In 2018, India and Oman signed an MoU to include peaceful exploration of space in their agenda, and to help further develop Oman’s space programme.

Bahrain, although still in the early stages of developing its space programme, has also sought regional and international cooperation. In 2019, Bahrain expressed interest in collaborating with India, and an MoU was signed during Indian PM Narendra Modi’s visit to Bahrain.

However, India faces competition from China, which has also been providing significant assistance to West Asian powers in the form of satellite cooperation. To maintain its geopolitical interests in the Persian Gulf, India needs to take proactive steps such as more active participation with the Space agencies of the Gulf states, more focus on developing the space programme of the states which are still at the early stages, and more projects for technology transfers.



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